India has the second largest population on earth, just behind China. It represents just over 15% of the world’s population.
Population: 930 million people
Geographic size: 1.2 million square miles
Capital: New Delhi
Major cities and population: New Delhi, Delhi (7 million), Bombay (13 million), Calcutta (11 million), Madras (6 million).
Size: Total land area in India is 2,973,190 sq kms. Total area, including territorial seas, claimed is 3,287,590 sq kms
Topography of India:
Three main geological regions: Indo-Gangetic Plain and Himalayas, collectively known as North India; and Peninsula or South India.

Climate in India:
Climate diverges considerably from Himalayas in north to tropical south. Four seasons: relatively dry, cool winter December to February; dry, hot summer March to May; southwest monsoon June to September when predominating southwest maritime winds bring rains to most of country; and northeast, or retreating, monsoon October and November. Most of southern India, particularly inland, is hot and dry. Temperatures can reach as high as 120 degrees Fahrenheit.

Society in India
Population : The total population of India as at 0:00 hours on 1st March 2001 stood at 1,027,015,247 persons. With this, India became only the second country in the world after China to cross the one billion mark. The population of the country rose by 21.34 % between 1991-2001.
Sex Ratio:933 Female per 1000 Males.
Health: In 1995 life expectancy for men 58.5 years, for women 59.6 years; infant mortality rate 76.3 per 1,000 live births. Malaria, filariasis, leprosy, cholera, pneumonic plague, tuberculosis, trachoma, goiter, and diarrheal diseases all occur.
Education: Twelve-year education system; mandatory primary and middle levels, optional secondary education; high drop-out rate even at compulsory levels. National adult literacy rate 65.38 % in 2001 (male 75.85 %, female 54.16%). More than 180 universities, some 500 teacher training colleges, and several thousand other colleges.
Religion: Most (82 percent) observe Hinduism; 12.1 percent Muslim, 2.3 percent Christian, 1.9 percent Sikh, 0.8 percent Buddhist, 0.4 percent Jains, 0.4 percent other, 0.1 percent not identified.
Language: Official language Hindi; English also has official status. For use in certain official capacities, constitution recognizes eighteen Scheduled Languages- Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Kashmiri, Konkani, Malayalam, Manipuri, Marathi, Nepali, Oriya, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu, and Urdu.

Geographic landmarks
India is basically a peninsula, with the Arabian Sea on the west, the Bay of Bengal on the east, and the Indian Ocean to the south. The Himalayan Mountains separate India from much of the rest of Asia and China. The Himalayas have many of the tallest mountains in the world. The tallest mountain in India is the Kanchenjunga at 28,208 feet.  On the north-western end of India is the Thar desert. Most of southern India is the Deccan Plateau, which is mostly rolling hills with many rivers. The Eastern and Western Ghats are coastal mountains on either side of the plateau.

Point of interest
India has many interesting architectural designs. The Taj Mahal (The first wonder of the world) was built between 1632 and 1653 by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan’s in memory of his wife Mumtaz Mahal. Traditional Indian art includes a variety of sculpted images on temples and other buildings.